Cars affected by the Change in VES come 1st July!
Currently the VES banding is based on 4 pollutants namely carbon monoxide(CO), hydrocarbons(HC), nitrogen oxides(NOx) and carbon dioxide(Co2) but by 1st July 2018 a 5th pollutant known as particulate matter(PM) will also be factored in and how is this going to affect car buyers? Which are the models affected and after 1st July, how much more do you have to pay to own that same model which you have been planning to buy?
Let’s start with the Toyota C-HR Hybrid S.
|Pollutant||CO (mg/km)||HC (mg/km)||NOx (mg/km)||Co2 (g/km)||PM (mg/km)||Banding/ Surcharge/
Rebates Before 1st July 2018
Rebates On or After 1st July 2018
|Result||52||12||5||87||0.9||A1/ $20,000 Rebates||C1/ $10,000 Surcharge||$30,000|
As you can see from the table above, the current VES banding of the Toyota C-HR Hybrid S stands at A1 which gives it a $20,000 rebates but it will fall to C1 which will attract a surcharge of $10,000 instead. Yes, the difference is a massive $30,000.00 and most if not all of this $30,000 will probably be passed on to the buyer. Based on current emission test result, this is the amount that we are looking at and it’s not looking good, right?
Our second example is the very popular Honda Shuttle 1.5G Petrol.
|Pollutant||CO (mg/km)||HC (mg/km)||NOx (mg/km)||Co2 (g/km)||PM (mg/km)||Banding/ Surcharge/
Rebates Before 1st July 2018
Rebates On or After 1st July 2018
|Result||19||14||2||123||4.0||A1/ $10,000 Rebates||C2/ $20,000 Surcharge||$30,000|
Again, the difference is a massive $30,000.00 which is about 37.5% of its current retail price of $80,000.00. Crazy but it’s true, you probably have to buy your Honda Shuttle now or look for a Pre-Owned unit after 1st July which of course will be quite pricey also due to limited supply. The only thing which will save you, of course, will be COE premiums tumbling down to less than $20,000.00 to cushion off some but not all of this “PM” effect. But what is the chance of it happening? Good Luck!
Now let’s take a look at a few other common models, their shift in the new banding and of course the likely increase or decrease in retail price.
|Make||Grade/ Package||Banding/ Surcharge/ Rebates
Before 1st July 2018
Banding/ Surcharge/ Rebates
On or After 1st July 2018
|Honda||Shuttle 1.5G||A2/ Rebates $10,000||C2/ Surcharge $20,000||$30,000|
|Honda||Vezel 1.5X||A2/ Rebates $10,000||C2/ Surcharge $20,000||$30,000|
|Honda||Fit Hybrid||A1/ Rebates $20,000||A2/ Rebates $10,000||$10,000|
|Honda||Grace Hybrid DX||A1/ Rebates $20,000||A2/ Rebates $10,000||$10,000|
|Honda||Shuttle Hybrid||A1/ Rebates $20,000||B/ Neutral||$20,000|
|Honda||Freed Hybrid G Sensing||A1/ Rebates $20,000||A2/ Rebates $10,000||$10,000|
|Toyota||C-HR Hybrid S||A1/ Rebates $20,000||C1/ Surcharge $10,000||$30,000|
|Toyota||Prius 1.8S||A2/ Rebates $10,000||A2/ Rebates $10,000||$0|
From the table, you can notice that most of the cars, if not all, will have their rebates reduced or will incur surcharges come this July. None of the cars will benefit from this change in the VES and the only model which is not affected by this change in July is the Toyota Prius 1.8S.
Buying a car is probably the second biggest investment in Singapore and I am sure you do not want to make the wrong decision which could turn out to be very costly. More often than not the timing of your purchase is very important because car prices fluctuate according to the COE trend and of course changes in policy which will increase or reduce the total car cost.
So what should you do now if you are thinking of buying a car soon or if your car is due for scrap and you don’t intend to renew the COE further? Well here are some considerations to help yourself make the right decision.
Firstly, find out the difference in the VES banding of the vehicle you are interested in and see what is the difference in car cost after the shift in the banding comes 1st July. Next, you will face the following 3 scenarios:-
- The difference is $20,000 – $30,000. It makes sense to buy it before 1st July because any drop in COE premiums is unlikely to cushion off such a big difference and your dealer might not have such a huge profit margin to help you either.
- The difference is $10,000. You might want to take a chance. It’s entirely your own call. If you think that after 1st July the COE is going to come down by quite a substantial amount and that the drop is enough to cushion off the “PM” effect then you probably want to wait. But if you think that the COE is not going to drop or might even rise then you probably will want to lock in the price before 1st July.
- There is no difference in the VES rebates/surcharges before or after 1st July. It makes sense for you to wait as there is no reason to rush and there’s no need to compete with others who need to buy their car before 1st July. Unless you strongly feel that the COE is going to rise, it makes more sense for you to buy after 1st July.
Lastly, you may want to act fast because there are not many stocks left and some dealers may not be bringing in any more of those models which attract a hefty VES surcharge or which no longer enjoys a good amount of VES rebates.
Still in doubt? Feel free to call or email us at 6282 8800/ firstname.lastname@example.org.
**Disclaimer: Emission Test Results correct at press time. Any change in the Emission Test Results might result in a different banding for a particular make and model under the VES**
Why do you install an oil catch can? Well, if you have a turbo car, especially a later-than-2004 model – there are quite a few very good reasons why it’s something you should consider.
If your car’s naturally aspirated, it’s not as much of an issue – so we’re going to be focusing on turbo cars here – like the Veloster Turbo , the BMW 335i/435i/135i/535i / BMW-anything-35i really, the N20, N26, N54/N55, S55 are all affected, as are Ford’s EcoBoost series of engines, in the Focus ST, Fiesta ST and Mustang EcoBoost, these are all Direct Injection Turbocharged engines, and other TurboCharged engines of VW, Mercedes, AUDI and all other popular turbo charged cars, and as such they’re afflicted by all the same issues.
As we explained in our article talking about why BMW recommends Walnut Media Blasting Intake Valve cleaning Service be done every 40,000 miles (which isn’t covered under your maintenance plan BTW) – all turbocharged cars experience oil blowby when under boost. It’s just the fact of the matter – even brand new, your turbo car’s going to have oil blowby if you’re heavy on the throttle.
Find any Oil Catch Can from Aliexpress or AMAZON and search for your typical type, the Mechanic will probably do a custom fit with host & pipes to tailor to your car for you at their workshop..
SGCARGUIDE Most Recommended Workshop in Singapore … if you are a Car owner in Singapore, go to this workshop : 833 Motorsports (located at SIN MING @ AutoCity). You can look for Mr. Eldred the owner of the Workshop and show this POST to get “Sgcarguide Promo Offer”
See below are the Oil Catch Can installed in one of the Veloster Turb Charged Car.
BEFORE INSTALLATION AFTER INSTALLATION WITH PIPING
SEND US YOUR ENQUIRY TO ARRANGE FOR AN APPOINTMENT WITH A CERTIFIED EXPERT MECHANIC TO INSTALL:
Okay, so what’s oil blowby? Why is oil blowby bad?
Blow-by is caused when a combustion in the engine forces fuel, air, and moisture past the piston rings and into the crankcase. From there, the blow-by is released by the crank case vents and back into the intake pipe. This occurs on all engines, but is worse on turbo engines due to the stronger combustion. This is bad because if nothing is done, this excess “gunk” will build up in the intake manifold, coat the intake valves, coldside of the turbo, intercooler, and intercooler chargepipes.
Check out the above illustration of how the average turbocharged motor is laid out along with a diagram of the PCV flow of a turbocharged car. So the PCV valve allows these oil blow by vapors to enter the intake tract.
As we said in the N54 walnut blasting article, the fact that many turbocharged engines nowadays are direct injected – which causes the inside of the intake to get much dirtier than it did on older multipoint fuel injection systems that sprayed the fuel mist into the intake manifold, spraying down the intake runners and intake valves with a mist of gasoline, which used to keep the intake clean. Since Direct Injection style fuel injection moves the injector directly into the combustion chamber, there’s no spray of fuel on the intake valves to keep them clean, so crap accumulates on them.
walnut-blasting-n54-nick-pics-3 walnut-blasting-n54-nick-pics-10Actual BMW N54 Intake Valve – look at all the crap coating the intake valve shaft, and the “ring”of crud that’s accumulated there from the movement of the intake valve.
walnut-blasting-n54-nick-pics-7Check out the yellowish green coloration to the intake area – that’s all oil. For reference for how it SHOULD look, scope out the before/after of an N54 engine that we did the Walnut Media Blasting Service for BMW N54/N55 on.
As the oil vapor collects on the walls of your intake manifold and intake valves and collects, it traps dirt and other fine particulates creating an icky sludge coating. The way the crud builds up on the insides of your intake is a lot like how your arteries can become clogged with bad cholesterol if you have a poor diet.
Much like clogged arteries will cause your body to perform badly, intake valves coated with blow-by and carbon buildup can cause the intake valves to stick or not seal as well, can negatively affect VANOS / VVTI type systems, lowers the effective octane of your fuel and generally makes performance suck – and the problem is exacerbated by higher boost levels.
engine-with-oil-catch-canSo, besides doing your Walnut Media Blasting every 40k or so (20k or so if you’re tuned) – what can you do to keep your motor clean and do your part for preventive maintenance? That’s where the Oil Catch Can comes in.
WITH OIL CATCH CAN INSTALLED – FLOW
BEFORE INSTALLING YOUR OIL CATCH CAN – FLOW
How to Choose the Best Big Brake Kit
In this technical article, we are going to run through some of the fundamental braking theory on which EBC Brakes’ unique Balanced Brake Kit™ is based. We will explain why ‘bigger isn’t better, balanced is better’™ and provide the inquisitive customer with all the facts and knowledge they should be aware of before investing in a performance caliper and rotor upgrade kit.
For decades car enthusiasts have purchased ‘Big Brake Kits’ in a mission to improve the braking performance of their vehicles, yet most Big Brake Kits sold in today’s marketplace supply the hardware to upgrade just one of the vehicle’s axles (either front or rear). The consequence is that the braking torque on the upgraded axle is increased significantly, meanwhile the other non-upgraded axle is often left as stock, with the original brake pads and/or original rubber brake lines fitted. The result is that the vehicle fitted with this ‘Big Brake Kit’ likely now has a totally imbalanced braking system, potentially leading to longer overall stopping distances due to the front & rear tyres not sharing the braking load proportionately.
Contrary to what the ‘Big Brake Kit’ (or ‘BBK’) name implies, fitting a massively oversized rotor or a brake caliper with a much larger combined piston area than stock is not a steadfast way to improve overall braking performance. In fact, this kind of approach to brake system design is potentially dangerous and is more likely to decrease overall system performance rather than improve it. That’s why EBC Brakes has adopted an altogether different approach for the design of our ‘big brake’ kits, one where EBC carefully selects the optimum brake rotor and caliper combination for each vehicle application. Further still, whilst it is common for front ‘Big Brake Kits’ to include pads and sometimes even braided brake lines for the front axle, EBC also provides matching friction brake pads and braided brake lines for the rear axle, at zero extra cost to you. This unique approach is based on core vehicle dynamic principles and an appreciation of the importance of achieving an appropriately balanced brake system to improve vehicle handling and minimise vehicle stopping distances. EBC has developed a range of vehicle specific brake upgrade kits that make it effortless for our customers to realise the maximum braking performance from their vehicle, by giving them every component they need in one complete upgrade package. Alas, when it concerns EBC Brakes the abbreviation ‘BBK’ adopts a new meaning. Introducing EBC’s Balanced Brake Kit™.
Before we go into some of the more involved aspects of braking theory it’s important to acknowledge some of the core principles. Firstly, in order to decelerate a moving vehicle all braking torque must be transmitted through the cars contact patches with the road i.e. the cars 4 tyres. Fans of Formula 1 will recall commentator Martin Brundle’s quote when one of the drivers locks a wheel under braking: “the wheel is only decelerating whilst the wheel is turning”. Well that isn’t quite accurate, since this logic would imply that when a tyre is locked up it has absolutely zero friction with the tarmac, but there is certainly something we should take away from Brundle’s quote here. The exact physical principle Brundle is referring to is: the coefficient of static friction is greater than the coefficient of dynamic friction. What this means is that a tyre generates more grip when there is no relative movement between it and the tarmac (i.e. no slip) than when there is dynamic motion between itself and the tarmac (i.e. the tyre is slipping or is locked up). Without wishing to go into the finer details of why exactly this is (lots of results on Google if you want to read up further on this) what this principle fundamentally states is that a tyre is capable of transmitting more force into the tarmac if it is not slipping. This is easily demonstrated by imagining two identical cars pulling away from a standstill. One driver dumps the clutch and spins away all the engine power, meanwhile the other driver progressively feeds in the clutch to pull away with minimal tyre slip. It’s obvious which vehicle will achieve the better getaway.
The fact that the coefficient of static friction is greater than the coefficient of dynamic friction is also the reason why an ABS system releases the brake momentarily if the wheel locks. Releasing the brake for a fraction allows the wheel to regain the same rotational speed as the vehicle, restoring the condition of zero relative motion between the tyre and the tarmac which in turn increases the coefficient of friction between the tyre and the tarmac. A tyre with more grip can transmit higher braking loads, which ultimately means the car is able to decelerate at a higher rate. This is why an ABS assisted stop is shorter than if the car simply skidded to a stop with all wheels locked up.
Taking into consideration both things we just learnt:
- All braking torque must be transmitted through the 4 tyres into the tarmac
- A tyres ability to transmit force decreases when it begins to slip
We can substantiate that the maximum possible rate of deceleration for any given vehicle is achieved when all the tyres are right on the limit of the available grip, just before any of the tyres lock up. Suddenly the importance of having a properly balanced brake upgrade becomes apparent if lowest possible stopping distances are to be achieved. If the front brakes are locked up but the rears are doing hardly any of the work, all the surplus available grip from the rear tyres is not being put to good use towards decelerating the vehicle. This is the fundamental flaw with front only ‘Big Brake Kits’ and explains how it is possible to spend thousands on a performance brake upgrade but end up with a vehicle that brakes worse than stock…
Now all this talk about being on the limit of available grip and brakes locking up is commonplace if you’re a racing driver, but chances are you won’t be locking up brakes if you’re using your car on the public roads for a trip down to the shops. Hence you might be reading this article and thinking ‘why should I bother with a performance brake upgrade if I don’t drive my vehicle on the limit all of the time?’. Well EBC Brakes do not infer for a moment that just because you fit one of our Balanced Brake Kits™ that you should be pulling emergency stops on the limit of locking wheels every time you hit the brake pedal, but the truth is that having a properly balanced brake set-up reduces the tendency to lock up under braking in the first place. The fact that all four corners of the car are doing their fair share of the braking means that you have more headroom to brake later and decelerate harder in a controlled and safe way before any of the tyres exceed the grip available, whether this be on the public highway or indeed on a race track. Furthermore, having a properly balanced brake system also translates to improvements in the vehicle’s handling, reducing the tendency to oversteer or understeer when braking at corner-entry or whilst trail braking. Quite simply, when it comes to performance brake upgrades: bigger isn’t better, balanced is better.™
With all that extra braking performance on tap, fitting a Balanced Brake Kit™ is like buying a new sports car. Sure you won’t do 0-60 mph in 5.0 seconds every time you pull away from standstill, but on that occasion you find yourself on a clear road (or track) with the sun shining it’s nice to know that you’ve got performance in reserve to have that truly spirited drive.
Anyway, back to the theory. Having already established that the maximum vehicle deceleration is achieved when all 4 tyres are operating at the limit of available grip but without locking up, it seems convenient to define the equation which governs the grip produced by a tyre:
Where µ = coefficient of friction of the tyre and FΝ = Normal force or load acting through the tyre.
The above equation shows that if either the coefficient of friction or the load through the tyre is increased, the maximum force that the tyre can transmit to the tarmac also increases. Fitment of a higher quality/grippier tyre seems like a blatantly obvious way to increase the available grip, but the fact that increasing the load acting through the tyre also serves to increase the available grip is perhaps slightly less obvious. Assuming the vehicle has the same quality of tyres fitted on all 4 corners (strongly advisable by the way!) we can simplify the above equation, disregarding the coefficient of friction term as a constant and concluding that the available grip from a tyre is directly proportional to the loading through the tyre. It now seems like we have the very straightforward task ahead of us in our quest to determine the sweet-spot for balanced braking nirvana. Simply drive the vehicle onto a weigh bridge to determine the weight distribution over the front and rear axles, then design a brake system to match. For example, if we took a vehicle with perfect 50:50 weight distribution, the perfect brake balance would also be 50:50. Seems too easy? Well, this approach would be entirely accurate under static conditions, however when we consider dynamic conditions and more specifically a vehicle decelerating from speed, another crucial factor comes into play: weight transfer.
Weight Transfer Under Braking
Weight transfer is the action of the vehicle’s weight getting thrown forwards onto the front axle under braking. There are several factors that will dictate exactly how much weight is transferred under braking, as we shall see in just a moment, but no matter how much you attempt to minimise weight transfer it can never be reduced to zero. This means that whenever you hit the brakes, the front axle becomes more loaded whilst the rear axle becomes simultaneously unloaded, which in turn has a knock-on effect on the brake balance.
This seems like a good point to introduce the equation for weight transfer:
Hence we can see that:
- A higher deceleration = more weight transfer
- A higher overall vehicle weight = more weight transfer
- A higher centre of gravity = more weight transfer
- A shorter wheelbase = more weight transfer
The most important observation from the above equation is that weight transfer is proportional to the rate of deceleration: hit the brakes harder and you’re going to get more weight transfer. Assume for instance that a car has a perfect 50:50 weight distribution when at a standstill. This same vehicle performing a typical 0.5g stop might have a 60:40 weight distribution biased to the front, whilst the same vehicle performing an emergency stop of 1.0g or greater might have a weight shift as dramatic as 75:25. The diagram below illustrates how the rate of deceleration affects the vehicles weight distribution.
Average stop = 0.5g decel
Emergency stop = 1.0g+ decel
Any increase in weight on the front axle increases the available grip from the front tyres, whilst the lightening of the rear axle in turn reduces available rear grip. An increase in the available grip on the front axle should be matched by an increase in the braking torque for the axle, since the tyres can now be worked harder before the available grip is exceeded and they lock up. Hence we can see that the principle of weight transfer constantly impacts the sweet spot for brake balance. Suddenly the task of designing that perfectly Balanced Brake Kit™ looks a little trickier.
If the driver braked with the same rate of deceleration every time, this would make a brake engineers task considerably easier as they could then set the system up to operate well under those exact conditions, but given that it is entirely unreasonable to assume that the vehicle will decelerate at the same rate every instance the brakes are applied, what we actually end up with is a brake set-up with a certain degree of compromise. This compromise allows the vehicle to perform well under the wide range of situations and conditions that the vehicle might encounter.
Given the numerous factors that we now realise come into play, you might be thinking ‘how exactly do you achieve a balanced brake system then?’. The first step is always to define the desired attributes of the final system. This will in turn highlight where a compromise should be made, or more specifically, whether the vehicles brake system needs a ‘front bias’ (over braked front axle), ‘rear bias’ (over braked rear axle), or a ‘neutral bias’ (even split between front and rear axles).
Generally there is a trade-off between outright braking performance (i.e. shortest stopping distances) and a more conservative balance which favours drivability and forgiveness when approaching the limit. A vehicle with a rear brake bias is unforgiving and rarely desirable since any locking of the rear brakes causes oversteer, which is unduly difficult to control for the inexperienced driver. On the other hand, a vehicle with a front bias is the conservative approach and very common in road-vehicles, since locking the front brakes leads to understeer, but understeer is comparatively much easier to control for the driver than oversteer. Finally, a neutral brake balance gives the best trade-off between controllability and outright performance and is therefore considered the optimum brake set-up if shortest overall stopping distances are the goal.
Despite a neutral brake balance giving the shortest stopping distances, you might be surprised to hear that all vehicle manufacturers set their cars up with a 5-10% front brake bias from the factory. The reason manufacturers adopt this conservative approach is because it makes the car easier and more benign to control for the average Joe driver, however, the trade-off is that some braking performance is sacrificed because the rear axle is not doing as much of its share of the braking load as it could be. Before we continue it should be noted however that a small number of modern vehicles do use a bias valve that sends more braking torque to the rear axle if the vehicle is heavily loaded (more passengers for example) but this device only adjusts the brake bias of the car under heavily loaded conditions. This bias valve should therefore not be confused as having an impact on the general brake bias of the vehicle, the vehicle itself will still be set up with a 5-10% front bias.
The philosophy of an EBC Balanced Brake Kit™ is to supply new components that together make a fine adjustment to the vehicle’s braking system (whether a rear bias valve for loaded conditions is fitted or not). By careful pairing of the components, EBC can move the bias rearward ever so slightly, back towards a more neutral brake balance rather than the 5-10% front bias a vehicle has from the factory. This more neutral brake balance ensures that the available grip from both axles is utilised fully under harder braking, giving better vehicle handling, reduced brake component wear and shorter overall stopping distances. Let’s go into a little more detail around how exactly EBC Brakes select the components of a Balanced Brake Kit™ for a specific vehicle.
Fine Tuning Braking Torque
Lets start off with a diagram and equation for braking torque:
Where µ = friction coefficient of pads, r = torque arm radius of pad on the rotor (which is taken as the midpoint on the rotors pad track), F = force applied by brake caliper (NOTE: the constant 2 comes from the fact that the caliper force F clamps the pads onto both sides of the brake rotor)
From this equation it can be seen that:
- Use of a higher friction brake pad = higher braking torque (EBC’s speciality)
- Fitment of a brake caliper with larger clamping force (i.e. a caliper that uses larger pistons) = higher braking torque
- A larger torque arm radius (i.e. fitting a larger brake rotor) = higher braking torque
Thinking about the brakes on a typical road car for a minute, this explains why we generally see larger diameter rotors fitted on the front axle, usually accompanied by larger brake calipers that use larger pistons. The differences between the braking components used on the front and rear axles are all evidence of vehicle manufacturers tuning the brake balance, fitting larger components on the front axle to shift the brake balance forward in order to account for the effects of weight transfer that increases the load on the front axle under braking.
Now for some myth busting:
Before going any further, notice how the above equation makes no mention to the number of pistons fitted in the caliper, it only refers to the caliper’s clamping force as F. Since Force = pressure X area the number of pistons in the caliper has zero effect on the caliper’s clamping force, the only thing that matters is the pressure and piston area, or in the case of multi-piston calipers, the combined summated piston area. Since the generated system hydraulic pressure is proportional to the force applied to the master cylinder, providing the master cylinder is not changed then any given force on the brake pedal will result in an identical system pressure. We can therefore ignore the pressure term for a given pedal effort, stating that the caliper clamping force F is directly proportional to the caliper’s combined piston area. It is therefore straightforward to deduce that increasing the caliper’s combined piston area will increase the clamping force produced by the brake caliper (at the expense of having a slightly longer pedal travel, due to the higher volumetric displacement associated with a larger piston area).
Quite simply this means that a 4-piston caliper fitted with larger pistons will have the exact same clamping force as a 16 piston caliper fitted with tiny pistons, providing that the combined piston area of both calipers are the same. It is surprising how often customers are miss-sold calipers with higher quantities of pistons, being persuaded through misguided marketing that the more pistons a caliper has, the ‘better’ the braking is. The only arguable benefit of using a higher number of smaller pistons is a potentially more even force distribution across the backplate and a slight improvement in pad cooling (since more of the pad backplate is exposed to fresh air) but in the grand scheme of things these benefits really are marginal and the fact that all EBC calipers use serrated nose pistons as standard totally nullifies this advantage, since serrated nose pistons allow better air circulation over the pad backplate than what could be achieved with several non-serrated nose pistons anyway. Furthermore, the first calculation EBC makes when designing a new brake caliper is to determine the optimal force distribution for the chosen pad shape, which in turn dictates the optimal number of pistons for the brake caliper. For example: take a 132mm width pad, EBC would choose a 4-pot design for this relatively narrow pad, whereas some competitors opt for a 6-pot design. EBC do make a 6-pot design, but it uses a different and larger brake pad that is 20mm wider and 4mm deeper. This larger pad needs 6-pistons to achieve an optimal force distribution, the smaller pad simply does not need 6-pistons. Hence care should be exercised when comparing different brake calipers, just because a caliper uses more pistons does not necessarily mean it is superior. It is quite simply not correct to compare calipers solely based on the piston count, instead more scientific measures should be used for comparison, such as combined piston area and pad area/pad volume.
In truth, the only thing you can guarantee by purchasing a caliper with a high number of pistons is that it will have a high price tag, because caliper pistons are machined to extremely tight tolerances and are therefore very expensive to produce. More pistons means more cost, so calipers designed with an unnecessarily high number of pistons will be very expensive, and if they are not very expensive it probably means that corners have been cut elsewhere, reducing the cost and quality of other components in the brake caliper design to reach a final price point that the customer will accept.
EBC Brakes have no interest in entering the ‘top trumps’ contest with other caliper manufacturers who unnecessarily include high numbers of pistons in their brake calipers solely for the purposes of false marketing. Instead EBC Brakes opt to allocate budget to components that actually make a difference to the performance of our products and add value to our customers, such as all of our brake calipers using stainless steel X-over pipes, stainless bleed nipples, stainless pad wear plates, serrated nose pistons and also hard anodising the caliper body before the final paint top-coat. All these things add up to produce a brake caliper that is of the highest quality and will look great and perform great for years to come.
Now that we’ve busted that myth, lets turn our attention back to the equation for braking torque. The torque arm radius r is determined by the size of brake rotor fitted and generally a brake rotor should be the largest diameter you can accommodate under the wheel rim. A larger rotor usually has a larger swept area which increases the rotor’s ability to absorb and then dissipate heat, a key requirement for high performance brake systems. The fact is however that fitment of a larger brake rotor than stock means that in order to maintain the same brake torque on the axle, the size of the brake caliper pistons need to be reduced accordingly. By careful selection of the appropriate rotor size and piston sizes, it is possible to adjust the mechanical components of the vehicle’s brake system with finesse in order to achieve the desired brake balance across the front and rear axles. This is the balancing act considered during the design of every EBC Balanced Brake Kit™.
Nevertheless, up till now we have ignored the critical µ (pronounced “mew”) term in the equation, the coefficient of friction of the brake pads themselves …
Effects of Pads on Brake Balance
It’s no secret that fitting higher performance brake pads can significantly improve your vehicle’s braking performance, even when retaining the stock brake calipers and brake rotors. Quite simply, increasing the coefficient of friction of the pads proportionately increases the braking torque on that axle. Providing the tyres are of high enough quality to allow this additional braking torque to be transmitted through to the tarmac, then the vehicle’s stopping distances will decrease appreciably.
It’s also fairly obvious to conceive that if you fit higher performance pads on the front axle, but leave the stock pads fitted at the rear, you are going to shift the brake balance towards the upgraded axle considerably. For this reason EBC Brakes always recommend to our customers that when upgrading pads they must not ignore the rear. You should always upgrade the front and rear axles together. Despite this recommendation we regularly hear of people fitting much higher performance friction pads at the front but neglecting the rear, who wrongly assume that the rear pads “don’t do anything anyway”. Unfortunately, we see the exact same enigma being adopted by manufacturers of conventional ‘Big Brake Kits’.
No front ‘Big Brake Kit’ supplied on today’s marketplace contains any components for the rear axle whatsoever. By supplying high-performance pads for the front axle only, the customer often leaves the rear axle with stock pads installed, assuming the big brake kit they’ve spent thousands on contains everything they need to realise significant improvements in braking performance. Another common issue is that because the vast majority of performance brake calipers use racing brake pad shapes, often it can be the case that the manufacturer of the race pad shape does not even make pads to fit the vehicle’s stock rear caliper, making it difficult to match friction profiles for the front and rear.
By not having matching friction pads installed front and rear the overall vehicle brake balance will be affected. This problem is exacerbated when things start to get hot. A stock brake pad is manufactured on a budget and typically begins to fade when temperatures soar past 400 degrees C. When the brake pad fades what we technically mean is that its coefficient of friction is falling. Observation of our braking torque equation above shows that if the coefficient of friction decreases, the braking torque decreases proportionately. This is a big problem for brake balance. The rapidly fading stock rear pads quickly give up when the going gets tough, which in turn shifts all the braking load onto the front axle. This massively overworks the front axle, causing front pad temperatures to increase thus accelerating brake pad wear. If the vehicle continues to be driven hard front pad temperatures may rise to a point where even the high-performance pads begin to fade, leading to brake fade on both axles with vast increases in stopping distances.
For this reason every EBC Balanced Brake Kit™ includes matching friction high-performance brake pads for the stock rear caliper, at zero extra cost to you. This means that the front and rear pads have the same friction coefficient vs. temperature profile, so that as the pads are worked hard their frictional characteristics vary equally in response to the elevated temperatures. This not only results in a balanced brake system from ‘cold’, but also means the vehicle retains a totally balanced brake system at elevated temperatures. This is one of the key factors that differentiates an EBC Balanced Brake Kit™ from a conventional front only ‘Big Brake Kit’ and gives EBC Balanced Brake Kits™ the edge in braking performance, reducing overall stopping distances.
Effects of Braided Lines on Brake Balance
Brake lines are often overlooked when it comes to brake caliper upgrade kits, but the fact is that brake lines also play a crucial role in brake balance. The brake lines form the hydraulic link between your foot and the brake caliper. A vehicle’s brake lines are made up of either ‘hard lines’ (inflexible metal tubes that run through the vehicle chassis) or ‘flexi lines’ (the flexible hose that links the brake caliper to the hard line in the wheel well). To all intents and purposes the vehicle hard lines have zero flex, meaning they do not degrade braking performance. However, all mainstream vehicle manufacturers fit their vehicles with low cost rubber brake lines from the factory, which are prone to flex and thus do play a role in braking performance and pedal feel. It is fairly typical for a front ‘Big Brake Kit’ to be supplied with upgraded braided brake lines for the front axle, what is not common is for the ‘Big Brake Kit’ to also come with brake lines for the rear axle.
Unlike motorcycles which in most cases have a lever for the front brake and a pedal for the rear brake, the hydraulic braking system on your average road car is interconnected and all connects back to a single master cylinder. (Some race cars may be fitted with dual master cylinders and sway bars, but we shall disregard these since this type of arrangement has near infinite adjustability to brake balance allowing the driver to tailor the brake balance precisely to their individual preference). Assuming the vehicle uses a single master cylinder, the system performance is only as good as the weakest link. This means that if the front brake lines are upgraded to braided stainless alternatives, but the rear brake lines are left as the stock rubber lines, the rear lines will be much more prone to flex under hard braking and therefore any money spent on upgrading the front lines is rather wasted. The brake pedal will have as much flex as the weakest link, in this case the stock rubber rear brake lines.
Quite simply, you will never find a car braided brake line kit that does not come complete with all the lines required to replace the flexible hoses on both the front and the rear axles. When a car’s hydraulic braking system is all interconnected, what you do to the front you must also do to the rear. Despite this, all front only ‘Big Brake Kits’ are supplied either with just the front lines, or sometimes without any lines whatsoever. Here lies another performance advantage to buying an EBC Balanced Brake Kit™, in addition to supplying braided lines for the front axle, every EBC kit also includes rear stainless braided brake lines (and pads) at zero extra cost to you. By fitting braided lines to both the front and rear axles, brake pedal feel is improved significantly and the end result is that all the brake fluid pressure is transferred to exactly where it is needed, the brake calipers.
So there we have it, the art of producing a balanced brake upgrade is one that involves fine tuning of the braking torque until the brake bias is proportional to the available grip on each axle. By carefully selecting brake calipers and rotor sizes for front axle, then accompanying them with pads and lines to fit the vehicle’s stock caliper and rotor on the rear axle, every Balanced Brake Kit™ contains all the hardware you need to realise the ultimate braking potential of your vehicle right out of the box. Additionally, every Balanced Brake Kit™ is designed to work with the vehicle’s stock master cylinder and is fully compatible with the vehicle’s ABS systems, allowing maximum braking performance to be realised without compromising on safety features and without the need for the costly replacement of several other components of the vehicles brake system.
Our Expert Motorsports Car Tuning Speciaist will explain and show you the performance after a full Dyno Tuning session.
What are the benefits of ECU Tuning ?
1. To optimized the overall hardware setup and for engine to be more efficient.
2. To fine tune the fuel system So the default setting in the ECU matches the fuel pressure in order to maintain a more consistent performance and various Air-Fuel mixture for various purposes be it drag race or track.
3. Fine tune intake and exhaust VVT(Cams) to achieve a wider range of performance from low to high rpm and from cruising to wide open throttle and to match exhaust flow characteristic.
4. Adjust turbo boost for various purposes (Drag or Track)
5. Finally ignition timing tuning to achieve MTBT (Minimum Timing Best Torque)
*Some live tuning as dyno test results.
Before & After – Using Dyno and ECU Tuning :
The Above Results after tuning from the following car:
- Factory Default Programmed Car:
- 265 NM. And. With an 183 HP
A big difference in performance and ECU programmed
2. Final Results after Dyno Tuning:
Interested to learn more and find out how much will it cost and please send us your Enquiry and we will get the best quote for you:
Though taken for granted today, the steering wheel was a transformative technology at the dawn of the age of the automobile.
As we enter the autonomous-vehicle age, some wonder whether the steering wheel might suffer the same fate as the tiller, which disappeared from cars after guiding the first horseless carriages.
Though the steering wheel’s origins are murky, race driver Alfred Vacheron signalled its ascent when he drove a Panhard automobile in the 1894 Paris-Rouen race. From that day forward, the days of the clumsy, nautical-derived tiller were numbered.
Today’s steering wheel has evolved into a high-tech, electronic device with numerous added functions. But its basic job of controlling the vehicle has changed little.
Now, as the industry looks to a future where computers assume control of more vehicle functions, the industry is rethinking the steering wheel.
Within the last year, major automakers — including Volvo and Mercedes-Benz — have shown concept cars with steering wheels that retract when the vehicle is driven autonomously. Some suppliers have developed systems to enable that transition.
General Motors CEO Mary Barra said last week that vehicles should keep traditional features such as steering wheels and pedals during the transition to fuller autonomy: “We think that having that capability when the steering wheel and the pedals are still in the vehicle is a very good way to demonstrate and prove the safety.”
Beyond that, Google’s famous pod car dispenses with the steering wheel altogether.
These days, an acronym-happy industry likes to use expressions, such as “HMI” for human-machine interface. As HMI goes, the steering wheel is about as good as it gets.
James Hotary, director of xWorks Innovation Center of Faurecia Automotive Seating NA, said the steering wheel’s iconic place controlling the vehicle might not last forever.
“I think we’re in many ways stuck in the paradigm of a steering wheel,” said Hotary in response to a question at the WardsAuto Interiors Conference in May in Detroit. “On the one hand, it’s a pretty darn good input device. It’s comfortable. You can put your hands in a bunch of different positions. It has stood the test of time. Completely autonomous vehicles are not going to be around anytime soon.”
But, says Hotary: “What happens when all of a sudden the manual part is the less-common-use case? Why are we keeping this legacy device around?”
IHS Automotive predicted last week that there will be 21 million autonomous vehicles sold annually by 2035.
The transition period toward more autonomous functions will be the interesting part.
“Because we don’t expect to imminently give up control, you’re still as a driver going to want that familiar, comfortable steering wheel,” said Jeremy Carlson, IHS Automotive principal analyst for autonomous driving.
“But that doesn’t mean you won’t see plenty of innovation happening there.”
Advanced supplier concepts
Indeed, carmakers and suppliers have been showing off various visions for the evolution of the steering wheel.
“There’s a lot more complexity being added to the steering wheel from an HMI point of view,” said Richard Matsu, director of engineering for Autoliv Inc., a Swedish supplier of safety systems and one of the world’s largest makers of steering wheels.
Autoliv, working with a Swedish sensor company called Neonode, introduced a steering wheel at the 2015 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas with zForce AIR MultiSensing technology.
Using optical sensors embedded in a steering wheel that features a series of glowing lights along its circumference, the zForce concept would allow drivers to interact, using gestures and motions, with various functions of the vehicle without removing their hands from the wheel to touch buttons. The driver could, for example, answer the phone by lightly tapping on one of the lighted sections.
The technology allows the car to know where the driver’s hands are placed and also would permit carmakers to program functions into the wheel, allowing them to eliminate mechanical switches and knobs on the instrument panel.
Says Matsu: “Many vehicle manufacturers want to know if your hands are on the wheel. They need to understand the driver’s condition regarding active-safety functionality.”
Matsu says Autoliv is talking to automakers about the development of the zForce technology.
The 2017 Mercedes-Benz E-class sedan, going on sale this summer, will feature what the carmaker is calling its most advanced steering wheel ever. The wheel features touch-sensitive buttons Mercedes is calling Touch Controls that respond to horizontal and vertical swiping gestures by the driver. Mercedes is calling the touch-sensitive buttons an industry first. Using them, the driver can control the infotainment system without taking hands off the wheel.
To retract or not?
Beyond adding functionality to steering wheels, carmakers and suppliers are wrestling with the next phase: steering wheels that are only in use part of the time, when drivers take control in vehicles designed with autonomous functions.
Volvo’s Concept 26 vehicle, which debuted in November at the Los Angeles Auto Show, features a retractable steering wheel. Robin Page, Volvo chief of interior design, says Volvo chose to keep the familiar shape of the steering wheel.
“We wanted to keep that recognition of a round steering wheel,” he said. “People need to get used to autonomous drive, so being able to get back to that steering wheel and grab hold of it, that’s comforting. We decided to have it there as a recognizable icon.”
Volvo plans to put 100 semiautonomous XC90s on the road around Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2017 and will run a similar test in the U.S. at a date to be determined. The crossovers will not have retractable steering wheels, but they will allow drivers to move back and forth between autonomous and driver modes by touching buttons on the wheel.
Volvo chief of interior design
In its Vision Tokyo autonomous concept shown at the Tokyo auto show last fall, Mercedes-Benz showed a Connected Lounge in which occupants sit on an oval couch. The concept allows multitaskers to go to work or play in congested urban environments such as Tokyo. There’s an oblong steering wheel, but it almost seems like an afterthought.
In manual mode, the wheel sits in the middle of the cockpit. In autonomous mode, it moves behind a flap. The wheel, along with the pedals, is ready to re-emerge when the vehicle returns to manual mode.
IHS’s Carlson is sceptical about such intermediate steps as the telescoping, or retractable, steering wheel ever being widely produced. “I don’t see this telescoping steering wheel being very popular anytime soon, other than as a concept of what the vehicle could look like. When we talk about that process of moving from automated to autonomous, it’s going to be a long, drawn-out transition. These types of vehicles will coexist on the road for a long time.”
And that means the venerable steering wheel is likely to be a tenacious survivor, not surrendering its primacy nearly so easily as the tiller once did.
Hyundai is nearly ready to show off its second-generation Veloster hatchback, but the hotly anticipated Veloster N performance variant wasn’t slated to make an appearance quite yet. Well, that was the case, anyway, until we found a photo of the Veloster N on Hyundai’s own website. So here’s our first official look at the 2019 Veloster N in all of its hot-hatchback glory.
As anticipated, the Veloster N shares much of its aesthetic with the Europe-market i30 N, a hotted-up version of the Elantra GT that we won’t get in the States. The Veloster N’s attractive Performance Blue paint is the same, as are the bits of red trim on the front fascia and side skirts. An N badge is visible in the grille, denoting this as part of Hyundai’s new performance sub-brand; it’ll sit above the Veloster Turbo in the lineup.
Official confirmation of such details will have to wait until Hyundai decides to share more about the Veloster N. But this funky little three-door with legitimate performance credentials is shaping up to be an enticing competitor to the likes of the Volkswagen Golf GTI and R and the Honda Civic Si and Type R.
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Several kinds of shops repair and service cars. Save money by choosing a car-repair option other than a dealership (which costs the most). Each car pro has drawbacks, as well as advantages.
– *Chain and department stores: Generally less expensive than dealerships. They usually stock a wide variety of parts, and provide guarantees on parts and labour. Many also accept coupon and discount mailers from competitors.
– *Several organizations test, rate, and certify good service facilities or individual technicians:
Independents: Many independent shops are less expensive than dealerships. The best independents offer honest, reliable, and experienced independent mechanics.
Specialists: Deal with a specific type of repair, such as brakes, transmissions, or mufflers, or work only on specific makes or types of vehicles, such as imports, motorcycles, or vans.
- Referrals: Ask people who drive the same make vehicle as you do where they go for repairs, and then check out the shops (and find out which to avoid).
The Consumer Electronics Show sets the tone for tech trends in the following year. CES 2018 was dominated by AI assistants, virtual reality, and health gadgets.
At the annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES), technology companies from around the world unveil and showcase their latest and greatest inventions. This year, Intel announced a new 49-qubit chip, HTC released a new virtual reality (VR) headset, and Fisker revealed an electric car with a 644-km (400-mi) range. In addition, home assistants, health improvement gadgets, and domestic help robots dominated the scene in Las Vegas. CES is the genesis of many transformative tech trends, and 2018 is no exception.
This year the CES venue was inundated with Amazon’s Alexa devices. Refusing to be outdone, Google ensured its own Assistant was aptly showcased at a mammoth CES display and announced that its Assistant would getting a new addition — a screen. Lenovo, LG, and Sony will be producing Google Assistant speakers with screens in 2018.
Samsung also showcased an updated version of its own assistant named Bixby. This artificially intelligent (AI) assistant is similar in many ways to Siri, Alexa, and the Google Assistant. But Bixby might be a part of more than just your phone. Samsung plans to incorporate this tech into other technologies like televisions, and even refrigerators.
One surprising trend from CES this year was a throwback to “retrofuturistic” robots that combine contemporary tech with 20th-centrury aesthetics. from that could fall under the category of “retro-futuristic.” Laundry-folding robots, robot dogs, and even a robotic smart home manager named CLOi all made an appearance.
Companies might be trying to tap into feelings of nostalgia — perhaps home assistants don’t have to be sleek and unseen, but could be visible and humanoid, like a new-age Robby the Robot.
TO YOUR HEALTH
Gadgets that focus on improving users’s health and well-being were in ample supply this year at CES. Philips launched a wearable headband to enhance sleep. Prevent Biometrics released a mouthguard that could detect concussions. Swim.com and Spire Health Tag collaborated to design a “smart swimsuit” that could help swimmers track their water workouts. Neutrogena unveiled its SkinScanner, which attaches to an iPhone and syncs with the Skin360 app to help users assess their skin health from home.
Virtual reality (VR) was once again front and center at CES. HTC unveiled its Vive Pro headset with integrated audio and a 2880 x1600 high-resolution display. Upgraded headsets aside, the Irish company Design Partners revealed its ‘smart glove,’ a haptic human-computer interface system for VR and augmented reality (AR). The glove integrates touch and physical sensation into the VR experience, a major milestone in the quest to make VR more realistic.
Google also unveiled a line of VR180 cameras that allow users to conveniently and easily capture their own VR content, a partnership with Lenovo and Yi Technology.
These trends are by no means the only innovations showcased at CES 2018. But they do indicate where technologies will likely be heading in the coming year. As AI assistants, VR tech, and health gadgets take center stage at CES, they offer clues to the future of consumer electronics.
General Motors is expected Friday to unveil a new driverless concept car without a steering wheel or pedals, as we first reported earlier today, and now we have a first look at the vehicle’s interior.
GM and its autonomous car unit, Cruise Automation, will submit a report Friday to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration on how it plans to safely equip cars with self-driving technology and deploy them on the road, sources familiar with the plan told Jalopnik.
While it still isn’t clear if GM’s showing off a working prototype tomorrow or if this is just a concept, the image we obtained shows off a straightforward interior—almost certainly a Bolt—just without a wheel or pedals.
When asked earlier Friday about the planned announcement, a GM spokesperson said the automaker had no comment.
GM rolled out an extensive game plan last fall for the company’s self-driving car plans. The automaker said it’s confident it can deploy fully autonomous cars in 2019 that could be used for a ride-sharing service.
The image tracks with previous comments made by GM’s autonomous car execs. In November, Cruise’s CEO said that its plans for self-driving deployment won’t include small-scale pilots “where you’ve got drivers still in the car,” a fact that immediately raised concern from safety groups.
Expect more soon. I’m interested to see whether GM actually plans to put this on the road, and, if so, when.
Update (12:02 a.m.): The embargo was apparently lifted at midnight. Several outlets just published stories highlighting most of what we reported earlier Thursday, adding that GM intends to manufacture an unspecified number of the driverless vehicles.
The automaker’s asking NHTSA if it can deploy the cars without a steering wheel or brake pedals, according to multiple reports. It’s unclear if GM’s waiting to launch production until hearing back from NHTSA.
Here’s a video GM produced to show off the car: